Following those initial steps, further treaties regarding marine life conservation have been put into action, such as the 1995 United Nations Agreement on Straddling FishStocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, that ensure the conservation, long-term use and management of such stocks.
However, there are a number of other organizations and treaties that protect the oceans and affect the maritime laws on national and international level.
One of them is the International Maritime Organization (IMO) that oversees a number of agreements meant to protect the wildlife and sea environment. Some of those are International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships of 1973 (MARPOL) and the 1954International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil (the “OILPOL Convention”).
Who enforces the environmental marine law?
The enforcing bodies are subsidiaries of the UN and have the power to assist and resolve issues originating from the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention. Some of these are:
– The International Seabed Authority allows states parties to initiate and manage activities relating
to extraction of mineral resources in the international seabed area. – And there is also The International Tribunal for theLaw of the Sea that assists with interpretation and application of the conventions.
– Lastly, the Commission on the Limits of theContinental Shelf uses scientific and technical methods to define the limits of the continental shelf in special cases.
All of the activities of these bodies might have affect on national and international maritime law.
Latest Developments In Marine Life Conservation
The latest concerns of maritime legislators have been regarding the growing attention put on the Arctic Ocean and the affect of greenhouse gas emissions from shipping vessels.
One of the biggest issues with the Arctic Ocean is thelack of clear line to where the continental shelf end (asdefined by UNCLOS) and whose responsibility is the protection and conservation of its waters. According toUNCLOS, states have the to exploit natural resources on the continental shelf, but in the international seabed, the International Seabed Authority has the right to manage the oceans on behalf of all states.